5 List of Common Infectious Diseases – As a resident who lives in the tropics, there are several infectious diseases that are often experienced by Indonesians. Some of these infectious diseases can be caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Here is a list of 5 infectious diseases:
1.Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARI)
Acute respiratory infections are infections that affect the respiratory tract and can interfere with normal respiratory function. ARI can affect the upper respiratory tract (from the nose to the top of the vocal cords) or the lower respiratory tract (starting at the bottom of the vocal cords and ending in the lungs). Children, the elderly, and people with compromised immune systems are more at risk of developing ARI
What are the symptoms of an acute respiratory infection?
The symptoms of ARI experienced will differ depending on the upper or lower respiratory tract. Symptoms can include:
- Nasal congestion
- Sore throat
- Hard to breathe
- Abnormal breath sounds
- Chest pain
- Decreased appetite
Diarrhea is included in the 5 list of infectious diseases. Diarrhea is characterized by a change in the consistency of the stool to become more watery and watery or an increase in the frequency of bowel movements. Diarrhea usually lasts a few days and often gets better without specific treatment. Diarrhea can be acute or chronic. Acute diarrhea occurs when the condition lasts for less than 14 days, while chronic diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts longer, ie more than 14 days.
Acute diarrhea can be caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Complaints of diarrhea can also arise in food poisoning. There is even a condition known as traveler’s diarrhea, which is a condition of diarrhea that occurs after exposure to bacteria or parasites while traveling to developing countries or areas with poor sanitation. Chronic diarrhea should be suspected as a result of an intestinal disease or disorder, such as celiac disease or Crohn’s disease.
Dehydration and diarrhea
Diarrhea can cause a person to lose fluids quickly and put them at risk of becoming dehydrated. If a patient with dehydration does not receive treatment, serious and life-threatening complications can arise. Symptoms of dehydration include fatigue, dry lips and mucous membranes of the mouth, increased heart rate, headache, dizziness, increased thirst, decreased volume and frequency of urination. Treatment of diarrhea is mainly through the provision of replacement fluids (rehydration) either orally (drinks, ORS solution) or through infusion in severe dehydration.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infectious disease that mainly attacks the lungs. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), TB is one of the top 10 causes of death globally, killing 1.7 million people in 2016. TB is a disease that can be prevented and cured with proper treatment.
What are the symptoms of TB?
Some people are infected with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes tuberculosis but have no symptoms. This condition is known as latent tuberculosis. TB can remain in the body in an inactive state for years, before developing into active TB disease.
Active TB usually causes several symptoms. The clinical symptoms of active pulmonary tuberculosis are:
- Cough >3 weeks
- Coughing up phlegm or coughing up blood or phlegm (phlegm)
- Sweating at night
- Fever with no apparent cause
- Weight loss
- Unexplained fatigue
Also Read : Natural Ways to Treat Diabetes
4. Dengue Fever
Dengue fever is a disease caused by one of four types of dengue virus which is transmitted through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. After being infected with one type of dengue virus, your body will develop immunity to that type of virus for the rest of your life. However, you can still be infected with the other three types of viruses.
The clinical symptoms of dengue fever are as follows:
- Fever for 4-7 days
- Nausea and vomiting
- Stomach pain, especially in the solar plexus
- Pain at the back of the eyeball
- Signs of spontaneous bleeding, such as nosebleeds, red spots on the skin
Diphtheria is also included in the 5 list of infectious diseases. Diphtheria is a severe bacterial infection that causes the formation of mucous membranes in the nose and throat. The bacteria that causes diphtheria is Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Transmission of this bacteria is through direct contact with diphtheria patients or through contact with objects contaminated with bacteria, such as cups or tissue used by patients. You may also get diphtheria if you are around people who are infected with diphtheria due to inhaling cough droplets or sneezing.
Symptoms of diphtheria can appear 2-5 days after infection. Symptoms that appear include:
- Fever chills
- Sore throat
- The formation of a thick, grayish-white membrane that covers the tonsils and throat
- Enlarged lymph nodes, especially in the neck area
- Hard to breathe
- Excessive fatigue
A person who is infected with diphtheria bacteria may show no symptoms of diphtheria or only experience symptoms that resemble a mild cough, but they can still transmit the diphtheria bacterial infection for up to six weeks after the initial infection.
If not treated immediately, diphtheria can cause damage to the kidneys, nervous system, and heart. Death occurs in about 3% of diphtheria patients, especially children under 15 years of age. Although it spreads easily from one person to another, diphtheria can be prevented by administering the diphtheria vaccine.